Leopard {Panthera Pardus}

The Leopard is the most secretive and elusive of the large carnivores

South Africa WildlifeLeopard {Panthera Pardus}

The most secretive and elusive of the large carnivores, the leopard is also the shrewdest. Pound for pound, it is the strongest climber of the larger cats and is capable of killing prey far larger than itself.

The coloring of the leopard varies from white to bright golden brown, spotted with black spots and rosettes. The rosettes consist of groups of 5 to 6 spots arranged in a tight ring.

The tail is longer than half the body length measured from head to tail. This fierce animal has small round ears and long whiskers growing from dark spots on the upper lip. The size of the leopard varies considerably. The leopard differs from the cheetah in having shorter legs, and rosette-like spots and is without the cheetah’s black "tear" marks from eye to mouth.

Quick Facts

Size

The leopard ranges in size from 1 to almost 2 metres long, and weighs between 30 - 70 kg. Females are typically around two-thirds the size of males.

Habitat

Bush and riverine forests. Usually in or near thickets on mountain sides or along streams and rivers. Leopards are mainly nocturnal animals but are also seen during the day, especially in the early mornings and late afternoons. They usually forage alone except in the mating season.

Diet - Carnivore

Leopard hunt and feed on small animals and medium size antelope. They also favour fish, reptiles and birds to smaller mammals such as rodents, hares and baboons.

Leopards are shy, cunning and very dangerous, especially when wounded. Leopards are very good tree climbers and can pull large prey up a tree to protect it from other predators or scavengers in the vicinity. They return later to feed again. Leopards still occur outside conservation areas.

Socialisation

Leopards are basically solitary and go out of their way to avoid one another. Each animal has a home range that overlaps with its neighbors; the male's range is much larger and generally overlaps with those of several females.

A leopard usually does not tolerate intrusion into its own range except to mate. Unexpected encounters between leopards can lead to fights.

Reproduction

Leopard breed throughout the year. Number of young is 2 to 3 although more have been recorded.

During the first few weeks of the cubs life, the mother will set down roots to stay with her cubs until they are old and strong enough to accompany her. She keeps her young hidden for the first eight weeks in order to protect them from predators, often moving them to new locations if she senses danger. They will get their first taste of meat at 6 or 7 weeks of age and are then taught to hunt. Suckling ceases at about 3 months but they continue to live with their mothers for up to two years.

Gestation

The gestation period is 2.5 months.

Life Expectancy

12 to 17 years in the wild. 21 years in captivity.

Predators

  • Humans

Differentiate Leopard from Cheetah by:

  • Their spots – the leopard’s spots are known as rosettes as they cluster with a dark brown spot in the middle, whilst a cheetah has solid black dots
  • Their eyes – a cheetah has black tear grooves between the eyes and mouth
  • Their builds – the leopard (built for strength) is far stockier and more solid than the cheetah that is built for speed and is more slender with long legs
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Leopard Conservation Status

  • Near Threatened
  • Listed as vulnerable by the IUCN

South Africa's Big Five

Did you know?

The best time of year to visit South Africa with the aim of seeing leopards is May to September, during the winter months. In summer, leopards hide in the shady boughs of trees or in similar areas of seclusion, to escape the heat of the day. In winter they are more comfortable to amble around during the daytime.

Leopards are nocturnal hunters, so night drives are the best time to see them with the help of spotlights.

According to AWF, spots are circular in East African leopards but square in Southern African leopards.

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